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APA Citation and Paper Formatting Guide (APA 7th Edition): Quoting

In-Text Basics (Quoting)

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201).

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Source: Purdue OWL

Quoting

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the words in quotation marks and add the page number to the in-text citation. There are two basic formats which can be used.:

The homeless were typically neglected growing up since they "commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony" (Rokach, 2005, p. 477).

OR

As Rokach (2005) notes, the homeless "often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately" (p. 477).

Option one is the standard APA in-text citation format for quoting. The second option is used when the author's name for the work being cited is written in the lead in sentence before the quote

Long Quotations

What Is a Long Quotation?

If your quotation extends to more than forty words as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:

  1. The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
  2. The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  3. There are no quotation marks around the quotation.
  4. The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after, as it does with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding, 1960, p.186)

Three or More Authors/Editors (In-text citations)

Paraphrasing Quoting

(First Author's Last Name et al., Year of Publication)

Example: (FitzGerald et al., 2020)

(First Author's Last Name et al., Year of Publication, p. Page number of quotation)

Example (FitzGerald et al., 2020, p. 405)

Additional Resources

Have a question about quotations or in-text citations that isn't answered on this page? Check out these sites for more detailed information:

No Author and/or No Date

No Known Author:

Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your References List.

If the title in the References list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.

If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.

Examples:

(Cell Biology, 2012, p. 157)

("Nursing," 2011, p. 9)

 

No Known Date of Publication:

Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d.".

Example:

(Smith, n.d., p. 200)

No Page Numbers

When you quote from online sources that do not provide page numbers (like Webpages), you can cite:

  • A paragraph number (if this is not provided, you can count the paragraph number from the start of your source). Example:

Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, para. 3).

  • A heading and paragraph number. Example: 

Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, Bowlby's Initial Stance section, para. 3).

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