This guide offers rules and examples for the general format of APA student research papers, in-text citations, and the Reference list. Use the blue tabs at the top of the guide to navigate. If needed, look for boxes titled "Additional Resources," located near the bottom of every page, with links to in-depth, authoritative APA websites.
While this guide is meant to be reliable resource and the contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge, it is illustrative rather than exhaustive. The ultimate authority on APA style is the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition. The manual itself (on which this guide is based) should be consulted along with this guide and the "Additional Resources" links in order to guarantee consistent adherence to APA rules.
Some examples illustrate recommendations of Seneca Library/Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) and should be viewed as modifications to the official APA guidelines.
APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of formatting and citation rules for publications (including research papers) in the social sciences.
There are two parts to APA citations: In-text citations and the Reference list.
In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:
Have a question about something APA-related that isn't covered in this guide? Check out these in-depth webpages, created by authorities on APA style: